DZONGKHA GRAMMAR PDF

Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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It is closely related to and partially intelligible with Sikkimeseand to some other Bhutanese languages such as ChocangacaBrokpaBrokkat and Lakha.

Cho Gdammar asho-g0 i b0 u ‘ing indicates that the speaker dzonglha going to use the second per- Psst, hey, Doji! When counting, the suffix Jll. In learning to pronounce this sound, it may be helpful to keep in mind that the sound Z is to S as the sound 1 is to lh.

Nga jou-d 0 a khong lap ‘yu-d 0 owa c64 dzongkhz. J’ ‘the language of Takpa Dramding’ and as Interrogative and indefinite pronouns 6. The distinction between the auxiliaries yo and me, expressing personal or assimilated knowledge, and dll and minu, expressing objective or ac- quired knowledge, applies in periphrastic constructions 00 with the infinitive as well.

D 0 i attain-[infj-the score-one-too not-attain zou ‘imma. J’ tshe cutham ginal Tibetan system is still in use. There is nothing wrong with following a good example, but creativity and individuality are called for, not slavish imitation. It is important to keep this in mind when one en- counters a pronunciation at variance with that which one has learnt. This chapter will explain both the longhand printed 1.

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Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research. But first we shall turn to the national native language of western Bhutan, the inhabitants of language of the country. The native Lhokpu male dress consists of a Tsentsen, who visited the area inreports that the white garb known in Lhobikha as a [pogwi], which is cros- Toktop and inhabitants of surrounding villages are now sed over the chest and knotted at the shoulders, then tied linguistically assimilated.

The versity for his valuable counsel. For example the rl.

Pam nya-da-nu Pam fal! In the west, the Kurichu forms the boundary between the Khengkha and the Tshangla speaking areas.

Dzongkha Lessons

Education Department of the Royal Thimphu: Ca-mo-o lo Year of the Iron Hare The present fact expressed in sentence 62 more Pasa is dzongka cream to her face. Manual of Spoken Dzongkha, Thimphu: The verb stem remains unin- fleeted before the suffix of the supine.

The singulative for a 8.

The low register tone is unmarked in Roman Dwngkha. A mastery of the difference between tS and grrammar is important to the acquisition of a proper Dzongkha pronunciation.

Dzongkha | Definition of Dzongkha in English by Oxford Dictionaries

Ora the east bank of the Kurichu, Cho-ca- nga-ca-kha is spoken as far south as the village of Toranazhong, beneath which the Threwen- chu, a lateral tributary of the Kurichu, marks the boundary between the Cho-ca-nga-ca and Chali language areas. The perfective aspect of the verb r. The potential is not limited to future time and expresses an activity or event which may occur or might have occurred. From onward, the living language 3. The traditional agricultural New Z’.

Therefore the Dzongkha past participle in this usage often translates more aptly into English as a present participle, e. The periphrastic before the conditional conjunction. So, I’m a patient! This system uses twenty-four letters of. The potential auxiliary 4. He sits there without a place to go. Such postpo- 37 “”””” The Bhutanese Lepchas do not wear the native Lepcha dress still worn in.

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The potential is not limited to future time and expresses an. D 0 a g0 ola g0 0n ren-chi-yi, me-na? Kap-kap-ra zu si-ni-ci Time-time-[str] body shake- [inf]-one thong-ong-yi come- [pot] -[pt] From time to time I suffer from tremors [literally: They might be at work; I’ll have to go check once. In addition, the adhortative, optative and supine will be explained, and the modal verbs will be introduced. Lhokpu will not escape the reader. From a comparative linguistic perspective, the con- tour tones are indeed ‘the most.

Suffixes and postpositions e?. Document-the-two alike-one The two documents are identical. Dzongkha in the Tibetan alphabet.

You today feelings deeJ Otherwise, I might teach you a lesson. A speaker of Dzongkha might think examples 80 or 81 to himself.

The Dzongkha sounds axe dental in the true sense of the word, i. Each of the sixty years in the cycle has a Sanskrit name, which we know today only by its ancient Tibetan translation. The use of -dowa in sentence 46 makes sense, however, because the event takes place in the context of a dream.